Citation examples Harvard style

Over the academic year, we also hold workshops on referencing and academic integrity so please keep an eye out for these. Strike a balance – A good essay will include a good range of references, but it won’t be stuffed full of names and dates. If you include too many references, you run the risk of producing a list rather than an essay. So, make sure you clearly explain and/or critically evaluate every reference you include in your essay.

how to cite something in an essay

So that you can come back to your own work and know where you found a particular quotation or piece of information. Click Items Citing This Itemto see citing works within the JSTOR database, or click Items Citing This Item to see citing works in Google Scholar. Type in the name of the paper you are interested in, and search, then click on the number that follows Times Cited. Jones and Smith showed that the ribosomal RNA of fungi differs from that of slime moulds. This challenged the previous assumption that slime moulds are part of the fungal kingdom . However, according to Bloggs et al. the slime moulds can still be accommodated in the fungal kingdom for convenience.

How to Reference a Book using the Harvard Referencing Style

A block quote is a long quote formatted as a separate ‘block’ of text. Instead of using quotation marks, how to be a good american essay you place the quote on a new line, and indent the entire quote to mark it apart from your own words.

  1. When you get to the reference list, you would reference the author you read rather than Bradshaw.
  2. Even if you change the words, someone might want to find out more about the information you are referring to.
  3. You’ll find this skill particularly useful when it comes to writing your dissertation.
  4. It’s your responsibility to report others’ work accurately in your assignments.
  5. If you name the author in your sentence, you may use present-tense verbs, such as “states’, ‘argues’, ‘explains’, ‘writes’, or ‘reports’, to describe the content of the quote.
  6. Summarising is similar to paraphrasing, but instead of ending up with a piece of text of similar length, your text will be significantly shorter than the original.

If you are asked to do a joint assignment, this will be made very clear to you by your tutor and in your handbook. The assessment hand-in sheet looks different to a normal one. If you are unsure whether you are expected to work as a group, what is a division essay or what the boundaries are, be cautious and speak to your tutor first. Unless specifically allowed in module or course documentation, the use of the same material in more than one assessment exercise will be subject to penalties.

Are there other reasons to reference?

The 5 Types of Plagiarism | Explanations & Examples The five most common types of plagiarism are global, verbatim, paraphrasing, patchwork, and self-plagiarism. How to Paraphrase | Step-by-Step Guide & Examples Paraphrasing means putting someone else’s ideas into your own words – changing the wording while preserving the original meaning. APA uses block quotes for quotes that are 40 words or longer. Footnote or endnote numbers that appear within quoted text should be omitted.

  1. It also provides the readers with details about where to find more information about sources mentioned in the text.
  2. Remember that reading the introduction constitutes the first impression on your reader (i.e. your assessor!).
  3. An in-text citation is a reference made within the body of text of an academic essay.
  4. I’m getting really good grades now, and I think that is my main tool that I’ve used.
  5. However, in Asian culture, a person’s surname is generally listed first, in other words, Smith John.

Slime moulds are considered part of the Eucarya domain by Todar . You could draw a picture, a mind map, a flow chart or whatever you want.


Although most styles require you to include the same information, depending on the style you have to present that information expository essay def in different ways. Next to the direct quote, you must include a citation to show where the quote came from.

When she came to write her essay, she was not sure where her notes were from, or which were her own words. The ideas you reference may come from books, journal articles, newspaper reports, web pages, videos, lecture notes, module teaching materials or any other source.

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The traditional view of the library as a book-based institution still perpetuates but does not account for the new services libraries provide. A human baby already has 100 billion neurons at birth, along with ten times as many other brain cells. Please refer to your specific guidelines as this varies slightly for different source types. Seglem and Witte suggested that this was an even more important benefit than the widening of literacy in general, especially for students who have been previously “burned by print” (p. 224). Seglem and Witte suggested that this was an even more important benefit than the widening of literacy in general, especially for students who have been previously “burned by print” . Please note you should always refer to any departmental/school guidelines you’ve been given. Please see our Referencing Software pages for details of referencing software options.

  1. Have you remembered to add page or paragraph numbers wherever possible?
  2. Credibility is key – When selecting materials to include in your essay, make sure they are credible.
  3. You must also provide a reference to show where the words came from, to help the reader find the source.
  4. You can see the student’s references at the bottom of the example above.
  5. For information on how to reference this website for non-academic purposes, see the SkillsYouNeed referencing guide.
  6. Any sources you cite within your text should also be included in the reference list or bibliography at the end of your work.
  7. Plus, it helps the writer to keep track of all the sources they’ve referenced whilst writing.

When you’re referring to secondary sources such as scholarly books and journal articles, try to put others’ ideas in your own words when possible. If you use the same words as the original, you need to use quotation marks around this section, followed by the reference.

​Summarising a journal article or book chapter

These are the features of referencing and citation, and also the rules of academic integrity. Many students worry about referencing and how to get it right, as well as making sure that they are not unintentionally cheating. This section on Skills Hub how to open an essay with a quote is here to help you follow the guidance correctly, and you can come back again and again whenever you have another assessment to write. The APA style is frequently used, and there are many reference lists of published works which follow this system.

  1. Unless you are citing from exactly the same page, you follow ibid.
  2. Uniquely, you should always include the page number even when paraphrasing, unless there is no page number in the source you are citing.
  3. In order to avoid suspicion of plagiarism it is important to make appropriate use of references.
  4. Doing it wrong, or not at all, could affect the grade you are given.
  5. This applies to Chinese, Malay, and Indian naming conventions.

As long as you’re only citing one book by Smith from 2007, the reader will then be able to look up the full details in the reference list. Keep in mind, though, that different versions of Harvard referencing vary slightly, so your best option if you’re unsure about something will always be to check your university’s style guide. Salila did lots of reading for her essay and took plenty of notes. However, she did not write down all the reference details and did not show where she had copied quotes directly.

List your references as you go

In this example, only Gray et al will appear in the reference list at the end of the assignment, as this is the only one that the student ending an essay with a question has read as a primary source. Your reference shows that this information has been published somewhere, and you did not just make it up.

how to cite something in an essay

To convince the reader of your argument, interpretation or position on a topic, it’s often helpful to include quotes that support your point. Quotes from primary sources are especially credible as evidence.

How to Cite an Article

This helps you integrate information smoothly and keeps your own voice dominant. This looks slightly different depending on the citation style you’re using.

You do not need to memorise sources and quotations to include on the exam paper – instead make your points in as much detail as required using your own words. Should you wish to refer to a particular publication or piece of data to support your answer, it is sufficient to explain the experiment and result. It is not necessary to include the journal citation within your exam booklet. Print books are perhaps the most used sources in academic essays.

There are many different styles of referencing such as Harvard, Chicago, APA etc. so you want to make sure you’re using the right style as some courses or universities may differ. This example is in the APA referencing style but the same approach would work with Harvard. If you are taking information from multiple sources and compiling your own table you still need to acknowledge those sources. Here is some general guidance for citing a social media page, rather than an individual post. Here is some general guidance for citing specific social media posts. If you have reproduced an image in your work and it is purely decorative you should still acknowledge the creator and source but there is no need to include a full reference. Figures such as graphs, charts and diagrams that you have used from other sources should be referenced in the same way that you would any other material.

how to cite something in an essay

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